Observe the child’s interactions with familiar cause-and-effect toys. Alternatively, look at the child’s interaction in familiar face-to-face games.
If the child has no cause-and-effect toys bring one (pop-up box, toy with buttons and sounds). In face-to-face games, ask the adult to prepare for the game and then wait for the child to move the adult’s hands or initiate the game in some way.
Watch for the child to go directly for the activating mechanism on the cause-and-effect toy. This will indicate expectation of a result. When the child initiates the face-to-face game, this also indicates expectation of a result.
Infants gain self-confidence as they learn they can predict the consequences of their actions. It is important to communicate this to parents and encourage them to let infants experiment with making things happen with things around the house (e.g., pull on the faucet handle, pull the light switch).
North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, 2015
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